THE PLANT PRODUCTION INSTITUTE ND. V.YA. YURIEVA
National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

Laboratory of Triticale Breeding and Genetics

History of the unit:

Winter crop breeding in the Genetics Laboratory (since 1974 - Triticale Breeding Department, since 2003 – Laboratory of Winter Triticale Breeding and Genetics, Laboratory of Spring Triticale Breeding, since 2019 - Laboratory of Triticale Breeding and Genetics) was started in 1950 under the leadership of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor Andrei Frolovych Shulyndin

Until 1983, research was conducted under the guidance of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor A.F. Shulyndin. Particular attention was paid to the development of theoretical principles of breeding and to the creation of new varieties of winter durum wheat and triticale. , The best in the USSR and Ukraine winter triticale varieties were derived from winter durum wheat varieties Kharkivska 1; Kharkivska 909. Octoploid and hexaploid wheat-rye amphidiploids were obtained from winter durum wheat, and they were further selected and cytologically investigated. Since 1970, the "biological" method of synthesis of lines and varieties of the new crop has been extensively used to improve triticale, which allowed breeders to relatively quickly create valuable forms without colchicine.

Since 1975, three-avenue work has begun to create new forms of spring triticale. The first avenue is interline hybridization of the best foreign accessions from Mexico, Canada, the USA and other countries (developed by V.I. Shatokhin). The second avenue is hybridization of spring triticale with bread wheat (performed by O.H. Soroka). The third avenue is the creation of new lines by complex intergeneric crossing between bread wheat, rye and the best foreign triticale lines (carried out by V.K. Riabchun). As to the third avenue, extensive work with new forms of bread wheat, spring and winter rye, created in the Laboratory and introduced triticale lines resulted in obtaining qualitatively new breeding material, building up a trait collection, justifying and setting a breeding program in motion, creating and registering varieties, organizing seed production.

Until 1983, the creation of fundamentally new varieties of winter triticale was carried out under the guidance of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor A.F. Shulyndin; until 1996 - under the guidance of Candidate of Biological Sciences H.S. Horban; from 1996 to the present Candidate of Agricultural Sciences H.V. Shchypak supervises winter triticale breeding.

       

Employees of the unit:
Areas of work:

Research avenues

Breeding of winter triticale varieties and alternate varieties for autumn sowing. The Laboratory create grain, grain-mowing and mowing triticale varieties and lines by intergeneric, interspecific and intraspecific hybridization.

Development of methods for spring triticale breeding to increase the yield capacity and adaptability; creation of spring triticale varieties with increased yield stability, good bread-making and mixing indicators.

Drought resistance of varieties is one of the most important factors influencing the spring triticale yield in Ukraine, so the improvement of breeding methods to increase adaptability, select valuable donors of drought resistance and to create new varieties is the main trend of spring triticale breeding in the PPI nd.a. V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The implementation of new, more drought-resistant varieties in production will reduce risks of shortfall in yields associated with frequent droughts and stabilize grain production.

Another research avenue in the Laboratory is assessments of the yield capacity of promising triticale varieties and lines sown in late autumn; creation of new overwintering triticale lines with high grain yields and adaptability.

The main objectives of triticale breeding:

Increase in the yield capacity (spike performance, stalk density); resistance to abiotic factors (winter hardiness, frost tolerance, spring frosts, drought, lodging, in-spike germination); resistance to biotic factors (leaf, ear and root diseases, intrastem pests, stem sawflies, cereal chafer, chinch bug); improvement of the grain quality (biochemical composition of grain, bread-making indicators); making cultivation easier.

          

 

Basic scientific developments:

Main scientific achievements

As a result of breeding, 25 spring triticale varieties have been created, 14 of which are in the State Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine. The first grain spring triticale variety Kharkivskyi 41 (Prohres 1) was created in the Laboratory in 1986, and in 1991 variety Aist Kharkivskyi (the first released variety of spring triticale) was created; this variety was the national check variety in Ukraine from 1995 on, for two decades. New varieties of spring triticale (Larkhliba Kharkivskyi (2015), Boryviter Kharkivskyi (2015), Husar Kharkivskyi (2016), Volia Kharkivska (2017), Zlit Kharkivskyi (2018), Bulat Kharkivskyi (2019), Dostatok Kharkivskyi (2020), Skarb Kharkivskyi (2020) and winter triticale variety Pidzymok Kharkivskyi (2021) are of high economic value, as they combine high levels (potential up to 9 t/ha) and stability of yields. The varieties have good bread-making and mixing properties. Increased (7-9 points) resistance of the varieties to smut, powdery mildew, brown leaf, yellow rust, Septoria disease, leaf spot, and root rot makes fungicide-free cultivation possible. Tolerance to and less damage by intrastem pests, chinch bug, and cereal chafer allows complete excluding insecticides from the cultivation technology.

Varieties UKRO (2000), Khlibodar Kharkivskyi (2013) and Sontsedar Kharkivskyi (2016) are registered in Russia. Varieties Krepost Kharkivska and Opora Kharkivska are being undergoing qualification examination in Ukraine; variety UKAZ - in Kazakhstan.

In 1976, the first in the USSR mowing triticale winter variety, Amphidiploid 1, was registered; in 1979, the first grain variety Amphidiploid 206 was released. The first semi-dwarf winter triticale variety Amphidiploid 60 was also bred in the Laboratory and registered. Currently, there are fodder and technical varieties (Amphidiploid 256, Kharroza, Ratne, Harne, Donets, Pavlodar, etc.) with a potential yield of over 10 t/ha. The most important achievement is the creation of winter grain triticale varieties with excellent bread-making scores - Rarytet, Amos, Markiian, Nikanor, Tymofii, which provide the dough conditioner-free loaf volume of over 550 ml with the total bread-making score of 9 points. Alternate triticale variety Yaroslava stands out for its high bread-making indicators and potential grain yield of more than 11 t/ha upon autumn sowing.

Three winter triticale varieties were submitted for qualification examination, incl. in 2020 universal triticale variety Novator (KhAD 86). In total, the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine includes 18 triticale varieties, two winter bread wheat varieties (Poverna, Moskal) and two winter durum wheat varieties (Shulyndinka, Pryazovska) giving yields of high quality grain of over 9 t/ha. In 2020, triticale varieties Leontii, Yelan and Oleksandra were registered.

In Ukraine, triticale varieties bred by the PPI nd.a. VYa Yuriev NAAS are grown in the Kharkivska, Sumska, Poltavska, Dnipropetrovska, Zaporizka, Luhanska, Donetska, Kyivska, Kirovohradska, Mykolayivska, Odeska, Zhytomyrska, Vinnytska, Rivnenska, Volynska, Ivano-Frankivska, Ternopilska, and Chernivetska Oblasts.

Proposals to institutions /agrarian enterprises for scientific support

We recommend growing registered varieties of winter, spring and alternate triticale to obtain valuable raw materials for bread-making, confectionery, alcohol and compound feed industries. Mowing varieties are recommended for feed production (for green fodder). Triticale expands the opportunities to obtain clean products and stabilizes the market for environmentally friendly production of food grain.

                                                 

Major scientific publications:
  • Щипак Г.В. Селекція сортів озимої твердої пшениці і тритикале з підвищеними адаптивними і урожайними властивостями. Селекція польових культур: Збірник наукових праць. Х., 2008. С. 42–88.
  • Рябчун В. К., Капустіна Т.Б., Мельник В.С., Щеченко О.Є., Чернобай С.В. Селекція тритикале ярого на підвищення адаптивності та урожайності. Х., 2015. 52 с.
  • Рябчун В. К., Капустіна Т.Б., Мельник В.С., Чернобай С.В., Щеченко О.Є. Підвищення адаптивності тритикале ярого селекційним шляхом. Створення посухостійких сортів // Розділ у кн.: Основи управління продукційним процесом польових культур. Монографія. Під ред. В. В. Кириченка. Інститут рослинництва ім. В. Я. Юр’єва НААН. Х., 2016. С. 278–313.
  • Рябчун В. К., Капустіна Т. Б., Мельник В. С., Щеченко О. Є. Урожайність тритикале ярого та її стабільність залежно від генотипу та умов середовища. Сортовивчення, 2016. №1 (33). С. 37–44.
  • ЩипакГ.В., Святченко С.І., Щипак В.Г., Плакса В.М., Радік А.О. Селекційна оцінка сортів і ліній озимої твердої пшениці в контрастних умовах вирощування. Вісник Центру наукового забезпечення АПВ Харківської області. 2016. Вип. 20. С. 180–202.
  • Рябчун В. К., Мельник В.С., Капустіна Т.Б., Чернобай С.В., Щеченко О.Є. Адаптивні властивості сортів тритикале ярого в умовах Східного Лісостепу України. Агробіологія, 2017. № 1. Біла Церква, 2017. С. 57–61.
  • Рябчун В. К., Чернобай С.В., Капустіна Т.Б., Мельник В.С. Тритикале як цінна харчова культура. Хлібний та кондитерський бізнес. 2017. № 10, грудень. С. 32–34.
  • ЩипакГ.В., Матвієць В.Г., Рябчун Н.І., Щипак В.Г. Результати селекції гексаплоїдних тритикале на зимостійкість. Сортовивчення та охорона прав на сорти рослин. 2017. Т. 13. № 1. С. 43–54.
  • Чернобай С. В., Рябчун В.К., Мельник В.С., Капустіна Т.Б., Щеченко О.Є. Історія розвитку наукових досліджень та досягнення лабораторії селекції тритикале ярого. Розділ у книзі «Теоретичні дослідження та практичні досягнення Інституту рослинництва імені В. Я. Юр’єва НААН : історія та сьогодення (1908–2018 рр.)» / В. В. Кириченко, В. П. Петренкова, Л. Н. Кобизєва, В. К. Рябчун; за ред. доктора с.-г. наук, професора, академіка НААН В. В. Кириченка. НААН, Інститут рослинництва імені В. Я. Юр’єва НААН. Х., ФОП Бровін О. В., 2018. С. 359–401.
  • ЩипакГ.В. Тритикале і пшениця: селекція на адаптивність, урожайність, якість: монографія (наукове видання). НААН України, Волинська державна с.-г. дослідна станція Інституту картоплярства НААН, Інститут рослинництва ім. В.Я. Юр’єва НААН. К., 2019. 480 с.: рис. 84; табл. 139. Бібіліогр.: 490 найменувань.
  • Чернобай С.В. Рябчун В.К., Капустіна Т.Б., Мельник В.С., Щеченко О.Є. Тритикале для пізньоосінньої сівби. Корми і кормовиробництво. Вінниця, 2019. Вип. 88. С. 44–49.
  • Shchipak G.V., Hegarty J.M., Shchipak G.V., Nichiporuk Ye.А. The final frontier: development of triticale with enhanced bread making performance. 10th International Triticale Symposium Itinerary & Abstracts Lethbridge, AB July 15-18, 2019. 27 p.

 

                    

Contacts of the department:

Contacts:

Tel.: +38(099)640-52-18 Chernobai S.V. (Spring Triticale)

e-mail: chernobai257@gmail.com

Tel.: +38(067)546-08-58 Riabchun V.K. (Spring Triticale)

e-mail: ncpgru@gmail.com

Tel.: +38(063)476-31-07 Shchypak H.V. (Winter Triticale)

e-mail: evpatiypetrov@gmail.com