Laboratory of Millet Breeding
Planned breeding work with millet at the former Kharkiv Research Station was started by Professor PV Budrinin 1912 and continued until 1929. Later different specialists (Helmer OF, Chernyshova AV, Nevstruieva RI, Levchenko LP) bred millet with intervals from 1934 to 1935 and from 1939 to 1941. From 1944 to 1972, millet was bred under the guidance of Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Zinaida Stepanivna Cherniavska; from 1972 to 2001 - under the guidance of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor Stanislav Ivanovych Konstantynov; from 2001 to the present millet breeding is guided by Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Svitlana Mykolaivna Horbachova.
As early as in 1945, 600 accessions of the world collection from All-Union Research Institute of Plant Breeding were studied at Kharkiv Breeding Station, and a year later more than 1,000 accessions from 16 countries were evaluated for several traits. For a long time, the main methods of millet breeding were individual and repeated mass selection from released varieties. Subsequently, due to the observation of partial cross-pollination of millet during anthesis, natural hybridization was used to obtain new forms of millet. To generate natural hybrids, a mixture of male varieties – pollinators were sown round a female variety. In this way, varieties Kharkivske 2 and Kharkivske 25 were created. In 1961, the Institute began to use manual emasculation of millet flowers with tweezers, a year later - thermal emasculation with a universal field thermostat, and since 1967 millet flowers have been emasculated by IV Yashovskyi’s water method. Artificial hybridization became one of the main methods for obtaining new starting material, and in 1961-1975 such varieties as Kharkivske 65, Kharkivske 86 and Kharkivske 72 were derived from this material.
Since the 1970s, experimental (chemical and physical) mutagenesis has been widely used to obtain new starting material, and for the first time in our country Konstantinov SI and co-authors created variety Kharkivske 57 using this method. This variety was released in Ukraine and Russia, considered as a valuable variety due to its quality and recommended for cultivation by intensive technologies. Via experimental mutagenesis, the following millet varieties were created: Kharkivske 57 (in Ukraine and Russia since 1987), Chehet (in Russia since 1993), Kharkivske 31 (in Ukraine since 1996), Kormove 89 (in Kazakhstan since 1993), Slobozhanske (in Ukraine since 2001), Konstantynivske (in Ukraine since 2006), Kozatske (in Ukraine since 2011).
Hybridization with targeted selection of parents in combination with chemical mutagenesis prove their effectiveness in creating competitive millet varieties recommended for cultivation in agro-climatic zones of Ukraine.
Head of the laboratory
Horbachova Svitlana Mykolaivna, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher
The Laboratory’s staffers
The primary avenue in the activities of the Laboratory of Millet Breeding is the creation of new grain, fodder and technical varieties, with high yields, high grain and groats qualities, resistance to diseases and pests, resistance to lodging and shedding, adaptations to the growing conditions of different agroclimatic zones, and implementation of these varieties in production.
- Creation of high-yielding varieties
- Breeding for drought resistance, cold tolerance
- Breeding for resistance to pathogens and pests
- Creation of varieties with high technological, biochemical and consumer-oriented qualities of grain and groats
- Breeding of short-season varieties for post-mowing and post-harvest sowing
Main scientific achievements
Millet has been bred for over 110 years. During this period, 16 millet varieties have been released, 11 of them were created in 1930-1996, and in the 21st century, during the 19-year period, 9 new breeding innovations are recommended for spreading in Ukraine, proving the effectiveness of breeders’ purposeful work on this crop. As of 2020, the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine includes the following millet varieties:
Slobozhanske (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2001). Zones recommended for cultivation: forest-steppe and woodlands. The variety shows excellent groats qualities and has increased content of carotenoids (4.5-5.8 mg/kg), which determines its nutritional and medicinal value. The variety is noticeable for high potential yield (6.0-6.5 t/ha). During the state variety trials, it exceeded the national check varieties for the forest-steppe and woodlands by 0.22-0.85 t/ha and 0.18-0.56 t/ha, respectively.
Konstantynivske (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2001) Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe. A mid-early, drought-resistant variety. Suitable for post-mowing and post-harvest sowing, which is an additional reserve to increase grain production. The potential yield of the variety is 4.5-5.0 t/ha; in post-mowing and post-harvest fields the yields range 1.5 to 2.0 t/ha.
Vitrylo (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2008). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe. The variety combines a high yield capacity with resistance to common races of smut. A guaranteed gain in the yield is 0.26 t/ha. The variety is resistant to lodging, highly resistant to drought. The protein content is high - 14.8%.
Kozatske (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2010) Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe, forest-steppe, woodlands. Resistant to common in Ukraine smut races. A variety with high technological indicators of grain and groats. It gives high yields. A guaranteed gain in the yield is 0.18-0.6 t/ha in Ukraine. The maximum yield is 6.2 t/ha.
Sonechko Slobidske (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2016). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe. Mid-ripening. High-yielding (exceeds the check variety by 0.3-0.45 t/ha). High resistance to unfavorable conditions. High technological parameters. This variety is resistant to lodging and shedding.
Nezalezhne (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2017). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe, woodlands. A high-yielding variety with high quality grain and groats, resistant to common in Ukraine smut races, adapted for growing in any zones. This variety is noticeable for consistently high yields and high groats output.
Bohatyrske (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2017). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe. A grain/forage variety with high biochemical indicators of grain, hay and green mass qualities. It is noticeable for an increased protein content in grain of 13.4% and a crude protein content in green mass of 11.0%. The 1000-seed weight is 9.8 g.
Osoblyve (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine since 2019). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe, forest-steppe, woodlands. A high-yielding mid-ripening variety with high biochemical indicators of quality: high contents of protein and carotenoids. Due to amylose-free starch, this variety has an advantage when used for technical, food, medicinal, and biofuel purposes.
Alternatyve (in the Register of Plant Varieties of Ukraine from 2019). Zones recommended for cultivation: steppe, forest-steppe, woodlands. The variety is late-ripening, tall, suitable for fodder production, resistant to common in Ukraine smut races. Due to amylose-free starch, this variety has an advantage when used for technical, food, medicinal, and biofuel purposes.
Proposals to institutions /agrarian enterprises for scientific support
The main factors increasing the profitability of millet:
- Introduction of millet varieties with consistently high yields and high indicators of grain and groats qualities, adapted to various conditions of cultivation, in production
- Adherence to modern cultivation technologies
As to promising areas of investments for production development, we should note:
- Use of waste (husks, straw) as biofuel
- Creation and introduction of thin-husked varieties into production of compound feeds to raise chickens;
- Use of millet to increase the gross grain yield per hectare of crops due to post-mowing and post-harvest sowing;
- Use of millet in bread-making and confectionery industries;
- Use of millet in pharmaceutical industry;
- Use of millet bran to extract technical oil and biologically active substances for microbiological industry.
- Горбачова С. М., Григоращенко Л. В. Просо. Основи селекції польових культур на стійкість до шкідливих організмів: навчальний посібник, за ред. В. В. Кириченка та В.П. Петренкової. НААН, Ін-т рослинництва ім. В. Я. Юр´єва, 2012. С.197-207
- Kobyzeva L.N.,Gorbacheva S.N. Formation of National Collection and Millet Breeding in Ukraine. Advances in Broomcorn Millet Research. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Broomcorn Millet. – Northwest A@F University Press, 2012. P. 67-75.
- Горбачова С. М., Горлачова О.В. Наукові основи підвищення стабільності агроценозів проса в умовах змін клімату. Основи управління продукційним процесом польових культур.: Монографія під редакцією академіка В.В. Кириченка. Харків. Інститут рослинництва ім. В. Я. Юр'єва НААН, 2016.
- Горбачова С. М., Горлачова О.В. Історія досліджень, становлення і діяльність лабораторії селекції проса Теоретичні дослідження та практичні досягнення Інституту рослинництва ім. В. Я. Юр’єва НААН: історія та сьогодення (1908–2018 рр.) / Наукове видання за редакцією доктора с.–г. наук, професора, академіка НААН В. В. Кириченка.– НААН, Інститут рослинництва ім. В. Я. Юр’єва. – Харків, 2018. С. 471–482
- Бірюкова О.В., Кобизєва Л. Н., Горбачова С. М. Вихідний матеріал для створення сортів проса кормового напряму використання. Наукові доповіді НУБіП України № 1 (71), 2018
- F. Kaminskyi, A.M. Prodanyk, O.V. Samborska, O.V. Gorlachova, S.N. Gorbachova Smut resistance in millet (Panicum miliaceumL.) genotypes and control of this disease in Ukraine/ Agric. Sci. Res. J., February 2020; 10 (2) pp.31 – 37 ISSN-L: 2026-6073
142 Moskovsky Ave., Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61060
The Plant Production Institute nd. V.Ya. Yurieva
Horbachova S.М., Head of the Laboratory
Tel. +38(0572)900-264; +38(097)254-28-90
Horlachova О.V., Senior Researcher
тел. +38(0572)900-264; +38(066)438-48-04