National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

Spring Triticale

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  • Darkhliba Kharkivskyi
    Darkhliba Kharkivskyi

    A food and forage cultivar with excellent flour-mixing and bread-making parameters, promising for organic farming

  • Volia Kharkivska
    Volia Kharkivska

    A universal cultivar. High yield potential. Easy threshing. Increased content of gluten

  • Zlit Kharkivskyi
    Zlit Kharkivskyi

    A high-yielding food and forage cultivar with good flour-mixing and bread-making parameters

  • Bulat Kharkivskyi
    Bulat Kharkivskyi

    A new food cultivar. High yield potential. Good flour-mixing and bread-making parameters

  • Dostatok Kharkivskyi
    Dostatok Kharkivskyi

    A new food cultivar. High yield potential. Increased drought resistance and lodging resistance

  • Skarb Kharkivskyi
    Skarb Kharkivskyi

    A new universal cultivar giving high and stable yields. Increased resistance to abiotic environmental factors

  • Boryviter Kharkivskyi
    Boryviter Kharkivskyi

    A food and forage cultivar. High yield potential. Longing resistance

Spring triticale cultivars bred at the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS have a set of valuable economic characteristics and can be effectively used in organic farming to obtain ecologically safe products. The cultivars have good flour-mixing and bread-making properties, and their yields potential reach 9.0 t/ha.

Spring triticale allows you to grow grain where there are problems with winter bread wheat growing. Therefore, it is also effectively used as an insurance crop for winter crop complementary seeding and re-seeding. Spring triticale has valuable biological features such as ability to intensively absorb nutrients from soil, increased resistance to spring frosts, drought resistance, resistance to pests and pathogens. Kharkiv cultivars are not affected by head and loose smuts, so there is no need to dress grain prior to sowing.

Food use. Flour from new spring triticale cultivars is valuable raw material for bread and confectionery production. High quality gluten allows using spring triticale flour in the production of mixtures with low quality wheat flour. The population of Ukraine uses spring triticale flour for baking homemade bread, rolls, cookies, gingerbread, etc. Bread crumb from the flour of some triticale cultivars has a pleasant aroma and a yellowish tinge due to an increased content of carotenoid pigments, and it remains fresh longer. Grits and muesli are made from spring triticale grain. High quality gluten allows using spring triticale flour for making mixtures with V-VI class wheat flour and baking good white bread. The biochemical properties of triticale grain allow it to be used in grit and starch production.

Feed use. Due to the good balance of valuable amino acids, carotenoids, etc. Components, spring triticale is effectively used for feed as feed mixtures or as green fodder. Compound feed containing 40-50% of triticale grain has high nutritional properties and is used for fattening cattle, sheep and birds. Compound feed, which consists of 75.8% of triticale, 20% of soybean and 4.2% of vitamins, is of particular value for fattening pigs. Substitution of 36% of wheat with spring triticale in isoprotein and isoenergetic diets for laying hens improves the safety and homogeneity of the stock. The green mass yield from spring triticale exceeds that from annual grain legumes by 1.38-4.19 t/ha (9-26%), and the dry matter yield - by 0.75-1.36 t/ha (22-38%).

Technical use. Triticale grain is a valuable raw biomaterial for production of high quality alcohol. Increased activity of amylolytic enzymes provides intensive self-saccharification and liquefaction of triticale grain wort. More complete fermentation of carbohydrates increases the alcohol output in comparison with wheat by 1.66-1.90% and with rye by 0.33-0.57%. By increasing the areas sown with winter and spring triticale to 1 million hectares, it is possible to produce 3.5-4.0 million tons of grain annually, which ensures the production of 2.1-2.4 million tons of bioethanol.

Farming peculiarities. Prior to basic cultivation, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied, on average 50-60 kg of P2O5 and 30-40 kg of K2O per 1 hectare. Nitrogen fertilizers should be applied locally before pre-sowing cultivation at a dose of 50-60 kg of active substance per 1 hectare. Seeds should be sown at the earliest possible time, as soil matures. The seeding rate is 4.5-5.0 million germinable seeds per 1 hectare.